Lower teenage pregnancy was associated with residence in relatively prosperous southern Manitoba.
Teen Birth Rate Among Girls Aged 15-19, 2016
After propensity score matching on all variables in Fig. T-statistics calculated for each covariate before and after matching to check for covariate balance; all covariates differed significantly in the unmatched sample and balanced in the matched sample Fig. The final conditional logistic regression model indicates the odds of becoming pregnant before age 20 for those having an older sister with a teenage pregnancy to be 3.
Of the girls having a teenage mother, T-statistics calculated for each covariate showed all covariates to differ significantly in the unmatched sample and to balance in the matched sample Fig. The final conditional logistic regression model indicates that the odds of becoming pregnant before age 20 for those whose mother had her first child before age 20 are 1. Although linkable administrative data have significant advantages, some important predictors are lacking. Information on involvement with Child and Family Services CFS and parental use of income assistance have recently been added to the Manitoba databases, but do not cover the cohort used here.
While having a teenage mother and becoming a teenage mother have both been linked to involvement with CFS, in less than two percent of children under age 18 were in care [ 38 , 39 ]. A variable available and applicable for a subpopulation is educational achievement, which is highly correlated with both involvement with CFS and parental welfare use [ 40 ]. These two new measures would likely explain little additional variance in teenage pregnancy.
Educational attainment is measured using the Grade 9 Achievement Index, a standardized measure taking into account the number of courses completed in Grade 9 and the average marks of those courses. After adjusting for educational achievement, the odds of teenage pregnancy for teens with at least one older sister who had a teenage pregnancy were reduced to 2. The rate differences of teenage pregnancy were similar for those whose older sister had a teenage pregnancy After propensity score matching on a series of variables, the odds of becoming pregnant for a teenager were much higher if her older sister had a teenage pregnancy than if her mother had been a teenage mother.
Controlling for family socioeconomic status, maternal parenting, and sibling relationships, teens with an older sister who had a teenage birth were 4. Four older studies estimated the rate of teen pregnancy to be between 2 and 6 times higher for those with older sisters having a teenage pregnancy [ 41 ]. This work focused primarily on young black women in the United States and controlled for limited confounders aside from race and age.
When sisters live in the same environment, seeing an older sister go through a teenage pregnancy and childbirth may make this a more acceptable option for the younger sister [ 11 ].
Not only do both sisters have the same maternal influence that may affect their odds of teenage pregnancy, having an older sister who is a teenage mother may change the parenting style of the mother. Finally, both sisters share the same social risks, such as poverty, ethnicity, and lack of opportunities, that increase their chances of having a teenage pregnancy [ 42 ]. Having a mother bearing her first child before age 20 was a significant predictor for teenage pregnancy.
Meade et al. Another mechanism identified as contributing to intergenerational teenage pregnancy is that daughters of teenage mothers have an increased internalized preference for early motherhood, have low levels of maternal monitoring, and are thus more likely to become sexually active at a young age and engage in unprotected sex [ 44 ].
The use of administrative data to conduct health services research has some significant advantages and limitations. Administrative data from a large birth cohort have higher levels of accuracy is not depending on recall such as in retrospective surveys and is ideal for examining risk factors over time due to the longitudinal follow-up [ 45 ].
These data—with a large N and a number of covariates—are well-suited for propensity scoring. A significant limitation shared with almost all observational studies is that certain covariates and mediating effects are unobservable due to lack of information. The data can only capture recorded variables; for example, only individuals seeking mental health treatment will receive a diagnosis, which may not be include all individuals with mental health conditions [ 46 ].
Sensitivity testing addresses this limitation, but such covariates might well have impacted study results. As mentioned above, not adjusting for involvement with child protective services such as CFS is a limitation. Although the number of teenage girls involved with CFS is relatively small, they may not be interacting with their mother or older sister on a regular basis and thus are less likely to model themselves after their family members.
The availability of an educational predictor was an identified limitation. To account for the impact of educational achievement in our full cohort, educational outcomes would need to be available for everyone for grade 7 at the latest as almost all teenage pregnancies occur after grade 7.
Since educational achievement generally remains quite similar from year to year—grade 9 achievement is likely to be quite similar to grade 7 achievement [ 30 ]; this reduced odds ratio may better estimate the true odds. In several years, such variables can be incorporated into models of teenage pregnancy. Additionally, we were unable to identify Aboriginal individuals; this is a limitation as teenage pregnancy rates are more than twice as high in the Aboriginal population than in the general population [ 47 ]. Family and peer relationships, social norms, and cultural differences will likely never be measured through administrative data; limiting the degree to which these confounders can be controlled for.
The teenage pregnancy risk seen in younger sisters when older sisters had a teenage pregnancy appears based on the interaction with that sister and her child; the family environment experienced by the siblings is quite similar. Much of the pregnancy risk among teenage daughters of mothers bearing a child before age 20 seems likely to result from the adverse environment often associated with early childbearing.
Teenage pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a large population based retrospective cohort study. Int J Epidemiol. Hoffman SD, Maynard R. J Marriage Fam. Association between adolescent pregnancy and a family history of teenage births. Perspect Sex Reprod Health.
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Akella D, Jordan M. Impact of social and cultural factors on teen pregnancy. J Health Dispar Res Pract. Bandura A. Social learning theory.
New York: General Learning Press; Evidence from a Brazilian birth cohort. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. The intergenerational cycle of teenage motherhood: an ecological approach. Health Psychol. Miller B, Benson B.
Family relationships and adolescent pregnancy risk: A research synthesis. Dev Rev. Short, medium, and long term consequences of poor infant health: An analysis using siblings and twins. J Hum Resour.
The Impact of Teenage Pregnancy on School Dropout among Secondary School Girls in Embu Municipality
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Can J Hum Sex. Office of National Statistics. Conceptions in England and Wales, Kost K, Henshaw S. From developmental origins of adult disease to life course research on adult disease and aging: Insights from birth cohort studies. Annu Rev Public Health. An efficient paradigm for genetic epidemiology cohort creation. PLoS One. Thesis Outline Teenage Pregnancy I. Overview and Background of Teenage Pregnancy in the Problems and Issues of Teenage Pregnancy Course Research Paper … This study examined qualitative research on adolescent pregnancy to determine designs As the focus of this paper was to Teen pregnancy : Trends and Teen Pregnancy Prevention as an Anti These academic essays are formatted in any citation style Teenage Pregnancy research paper example: One should start by saying that teenage pregnancy is a complex and controversial social issue in the USA of teenage … Learn why teen pregnancy research papers They have to analyze causes and effects of teen pregnancy in teen pregnancy research papers Daughters of teen The best sample research paper about Teenage Pregnancy.
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