SIU Press, If you're citing a source in its entirety, such as a full book, a movie, or a music album, then place the title in italics. If you're citing a source, such as a chapter in a book, a song on an album, or an article in a journal or website, then place the title of the piece in quotations and add a period afterwards. Follow it with the title of the full source, in italics, and then add a comma.
This second portion is called the container. Containers hold the sources. Wondering what to do with subtitles? Place a colon in between the title and subtitle. Both parts are written in title capitalization form. Nasar, Sylvia. Simon and Schuster, If the source does not have a title , give a brief description and do not use quotation marks or italics.
For email messages, the subject of the email is the title. Place this information in quotation marks. It is possible for a source to sit in a second, or larger container. A journal article sits in its first container, which is the journal itself, but it can also sit in a larger container, such as a database.
A song can sit in its first container, which is the album it's found on. Then it can sit in its next container, which could be Spotify or iTunes. It is important to include the second container because the content on one container can be different than content from another container. Title of Second Container , Other contributors, version, number, Publisher, publication date, location. In most cases, for the second container, only the title of the second container and the location is needed.
In order for readers to locate the source themselves, they'll most likely use the majority of the information found in the first part of the citation. Sallis, James, et al. ProQuest , ezproxy. Baker, Martha.
Google Books , books. In MLA citing, when there are other individuals besides the author who play a significant role in your research, include them in this section of the citation. Other contributors can also be added to help individuals locate the source themselves. You can add as many other contributors as you like.
Start this part of the citation with the individual's role, followed by the word "by". Notice that if other contributors are added after a period, capitalize the first letter in the individual's role. If it follows a comma, the role should start with a lowercase letter. Gaitskill, Mary. Gospodinov, Georgi.
Citing Sources: Sample Reference List Citations
The Physics of Sorrow. Translated by Angela Rodel, Open Letter, Sources can come in different versions. There are numerous bible versions, books can come in versions such as numbered editions , and even movies and songs can have special versions. When a source indicates that it is different than other versions, include this information in the citation.
This will help readers locate the exact source that you used for your project. Any numbers related to a source that isn't the publication date, page range, or version number should be placed in the numbers position of the citation. This includes volume and issue numbers for journal articles, volume or series numbers for books, comic book numbers, and television episode numbers, to name a few. When including volume and issue numbers, use the abbreviation vol. Zhai, Xiaojuan, and Jingjing Wang. ProQuest Research Library , ezproxy.
Lewis, season 1, episode 2, Warner Bros. The production of the source is done by the publisher. The publisher is placed in the citation before the date of publication. Include the publisher for any source type except for websites when the name of the publisher is the same as the name of the website. It is also not necessary to include the name of publishers for newspapers, magazines, or journal articles, since the name of the publisher is generally insignificant. When sources have more than one publisher that share responsibility for the production of the source, place a slash between the names of the publishers.
When including the date that the source was published, display the amount of information that is found on the source, whether it's the full date, the month and year, or just the year. In terms of display, it does not matter if the date is written in a specific order. Make sure to use the same format for all citations.
Writing a Bibliography (examples of APA & MLA styles)
When multiple dates are shown on the source, include the date that is most relevant to your work and research. The location refers to the place where the source can be found. This can be in the form of a URL, page number, disc number, or physical place.
For page numbers, use the abbreviation p. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing information from a source, add an in-text or parenthetical citation into the body of your work. Direct quotes are word-for-word quotes that are pulled from a source and added into your project. A paraphrase is taking a section of information from a source and placing it in your own words.
Both direct quotes and paraphrases require in-text or parenthetical citation to follow it. You used information from websites, articles, books, and other sources for your paper, right? Hopefully, you did, because the best research and writing projects use information from sources to validate claims. The purpose of an in-text citation is to give the reader a brief idea as to where you found the information in your writing. When you place a line of text, word for word called a direct quote , or an idea called a paraphrase from another source into your writing, you, the writer, must display:.
The major thing to keep in mind is that whichever information you include in the in-text or parenthetical citation, whether it's the author's name or the title, it needs to match the first word in the full citation. This is an MLA parenthetical citation as the author's name is in parentheses.
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Author's Last Name states, "Direct Quote" or paraphrase page number. This is an MLA in-text citation as the author's name is in the text of the sentence. Twain went on to say, "Jim never got back with a bucket of water under an hour - and even then somebody generally had to go after him 8. If your in-text citation comes from a website or another source that does not have page numbers, use the following abbreviations:.
Gregor's sister is quite persuasive, especially when she states to her parents, "It'll be the death of both of you, I can see it coming. We can't all work as hard as we have to and then come home to be tortured like this, we can't endure it" Kafka, chap. The girl's affection towards Marley is clear when she blushes upon his arrival and shares that she would like to accompany him to the theater Tales of Times Ago The smaller the class size, the more attention a student receives, which greatly impacts learning Malcolm and Knowles Many lizards, including the Carolina anole, only eat when they're hungry.
They'll ignore food until they're body sends a signal to eat Smith et al. One study shows that the average time spent on homework is 52 minutes R. Brown However, a more recent study, released in , found that the average student spends 42 minutes completing homework S.
Lawrence shares his insight by stating that "instructions need to be shared, not assumed Young The basic entry for a book consists of the author's name, the book title, the publisher, and the year published. The first author's name should be reversed, with a comma being placed after the last name and a period after the first name or any middle name. The name should not be abbreviated and should be written exactly as it appears on the title page.
Campbell, Megan, et al. The Best Noun Book. Books For Us, The full title of the book, including any subtitles, should be italicized and followed by a period. If the book has a subtitle, the main title should be followed by a colon unless the main title ends with a question mark or exclamation point. Publication information can generally be found on the title page of a book. If it is not available there, it may also be found on the copyright page.
State the name of the publisher. If you are citing a specific page range from the book, include the page s at the end of the citation. If you have to cite a specific edition of a book later than the first, see the section below on citing edited books. If the translation is the focus of your project, include the translator's name at the beginning of the citation, like this:.
Translator's Last name, First name, translator. If it's not the actual translation that is the focus, but the text itself, include the translator's name in the "other contributors" position, like this:.